Blog

Brazil a mix of mutiny and mourning after ‘biggest shame in history’

9 de julho de 2014

The morning after the night before, Brazil will wake up, shake its head and pray it has all been a terrible nightmare.

copa 2014

Left disorientated, punch drunk and confused by the 7-1 annihilation in the Estádio Mineirão it will take time for the full implications to sink in for a country that had so much invested – in all senses of the word – in World Cup success.

The newspapers, broadcasters and websites that had spent the last few days whipping up a sentimental tidal wave of sympathy for Neymar turned on Luiz Felipe Scolari’s men.

David Luiz, the capering heartbeat of this side and their second most popular player after the stricken No10, was now the tear-stained villain.

The Mineiraço, as it is already being called in an echo of the deep impact of the 1950 Maracanazo when Uruguay defeated Brazil in the final the last time the tournament was held here, was variously described as “the disgrace of all disgraces” and “a historic humiliation”. The sports paper Lance called it “the biggest shame in history”.

The previous day there had been even bigger tailbacks than usual in São Paulo as Brazilians rushed home to ensure they were in front of a television set. By 5pm, the streets were eerily silent in Brazil’s biggest city. What was to follow was equally unsettling.

The effects will be wide-ranging, for a whole host of reasons – political, economic and cultural – in a country where, despite everything, football remains so closely bound up with national identity.

For president, Dilma Rousseff, who found herself the target of obscene chants that had not been heard inside World Cup grounds since the São Paulo opener, the result could have an impact on her re-election prospects in October.

In São Paulo, those catcalls were generally interpreted as the chants of a moneyed crowd who despise her spending on welfare rather than those of a popular uprising.

In Belo Horizonte, intermingled with abuse for the Brazilian players (especially Fred), they felt more like an attempt to lash out at anyone and everyone.

But the dissatisfaction with under-investment in public services, and endemic corruption, of the millions that took to the streets during a Confederations Cup that Brazil won last summer has not gone away.

Immediately following the epochal defeat, Dilma took to Twitter to try to put into words the pain of a nation. “Like every Brazilian, I am very, very sad about this defeat. I am immensely sorry for all of us. Fans and our players,” she said, before borrowing the lyrics of a popular samba song to urge them to “shake off the dust” and rise again. That will be easier said than done.

There were also immediate fears that Brazil’s exit could ignite violent protests or pour petrol on anti-World Cup feelings that have continued to simmer since last summer’s mass marches but have been effectively smothered by police and the prevailing goodwill towards the football – if not Fifa or the authorities – up to now.

That may change, as discontent with Scolari’s humiliated team gives way to deeper introspection about the $11bn price tag of hosting the World Cup.

The tone before the game was already off key. The mawkishness before kick-off – the Neymar hats, the holding up of his shirt like a religious artefact – jarred with the lack of a minute’s silence for the two people killed in the collapse of an overpass in Belo Horizonte last week.

It was as though nothing must be allowed to get in the way of the “Força Neymar” narrative.

One of the striking things about this World Cup is the extent to which Brazil have gone from being everyone’s second favourite team to hardly anyone’s.

There is still the odd tourist clad in yellow and green here, but internationally there has been a backlash against the side – as though they have gone from standing for everything that is right in the game to everything that is wrong.

On the streets of São Paulo, an atmosphere of dazed confusion quickly settled over the city. In the run-up to the opening match, it had felt tense: metro workers were striking, the city’s overcrowded streets were even more congested than usual and there was a sense of foreboding rather than celebration about what the World Cup would bring.

If that changed as the tournament went on and the city loosened up a bit, it flooded back as the goals rained in.

On Paulista, a small gang of protesters against the World Cup revelled in Brazil’s defeat. In Zona Sul, buses were set on fire and a shop looted. But for the vast majority, stunned resignation seemed to be the order of the day.

During that extraordinary first-half flurry of goals, there were tears through dazed eyes. By the end, punch-drunk fans had either turned away from the television altogether or were staring blankly at their phones – as though social networks could somehow make sense of the humiliation.

On the busiest streets of bars after the final whistle, some drank to forget in their green and yellow outfits. Others discreetly took off their brand new Seleção jerseys and pushed them into their bags.

The street sellers across Brazil who had been doing a roaring trade in knock-off Neymar shirts, horns, hooters, flags and other paraphernalia must now take stock of piles of unsold inventory.

In the small bars and lanchonetes that pepper the streets of every Brazilian city, televisions burbled away in the background as small groups sat around over a shared bottle of beer and dissected the most arresting result in Brazilian football history.

Even the pundits looked funereal. Ronaldo, on the World Cup organising committee, stared blankly into space as his colleagues attempted to make some sense of the chaos.

In Rio de Janeiro, the mood was similar – small scuffles broke out and there was panic at a mass robbery on the beach, but the overall atmosphere was somewhere between mutiny and mournful resignation as tens of thousands trooped away from the Copacabana in the teeming rain.

There were reports of arrests in Recife and Salvador, two of the northern cities that have taken this tournament to their heart.

Hundreds of those in the stadium in Belo Horizonte left at half-time but, perhaps surprisingly, the majority stayed until the bitter end. When André Schürrle scored Germany’s seventh, they rose as one to give their conquerors a standing ovation.

At the final on Sunday in a brand new Maracanã stadium that will not now host a Brazil team at this tournament, such treatment is unlikely to repeated for either Dilma or the Fifa president, Sepp Blatter, when they emerge to hand over the trophy.

In the short term, Scolari’s side must rouse themselves for the third-place play-off in Brasília. Where they – and the 200 million people still trying to come to terms with humiliation on a grand scale in their own backyard – go from there is anyone’s guess.

 

Source: The Guardian, online edition

10 Amazing Places to Visit Before They Vanish

16 de abril de 2014

The world is filled with jaw-dropping sights, but rapid climate change is threatening some of the most spectacular natural wonders. Here are just a few of the world’s most majestic places that could disappear in as little as a few decades.

 

Great Barrier Reef, Australia

disappearing-places-01Ippei Naoi—Getty Images

The largest coral reef in the world, which covers more than 133,000 sq miles (344,400 sq km), has long been an attraction Down Under. Yet increasing environmental challenges have been steadily eroding the structure for years now. From rising ocean temperatures to an influx of pollution, this natural wonder could be destroyed within the next 100 years.

 

Venice, Italy

disappearing-places-02Holger Leue—Getty Images

The Italian city, long heralded as one of the most romantic in the world thanks to its charming canals, is facing ruin. The city of canals has long been sinking, but an uptick in the number of increasingly severe floods each year could leave Venice uninhabitable by this century’s end.

 

The Dead Sea

disappearing-places-03Reynold Mainse—Getty Images

The ancient and salty Dead Sea is the site of both history and healing. Yet in the last 40 years, the lake has shrunk by a third and sunk 80 feet. Experts believe it could disappear in as little as 50 years, due to neighboring countries drawing water from the River Jordan (the Sea’s only water source).

 

Glacier National Park, Montana

Avalanche Lake, Glacier National Park, MontanaDeAgostini—Getty Images

Once home to more than 150 glaciers, Montana’s majestic national park now has fewer than 25. Rapid climate change could see that number shrink to zero by 2030, which would not only leave the park without a glacier, but also severely disrupt its ecosystem.

 

Maldives

Travel Destination: Maldive IslandsMarco Prosch—Getty Images

As the lowest-lying country on Earth – with an average elevation of around five feet above sea level – this beautiful island nation could be completely engulfed by water within the next 100 years if sea levels continue to rise. The risk has become so great the Maldivian government has purchased land in other countries for citizens who face displacement.

 

Seychelles

tropical paradise, North Island, SeychellesMajority World—UIG/Getty Images

The epitome of a tropical paradise, the Seychelles is a collection of around 115 islands in the Indian Ocean and home to numerous luxury resorts (not to mention a population of nearly 90,000 citizens). Yet the islands are in danger due to beach erosion, after already seeing a devastating coral die-off. Some experts believe that in 50 to 100 years, the entire archipelago could be submerged.

 

The Alps

FRANCE-SKI-LEISURE-AVALANCHEPhilippe Desmazes—AFP/Getty Images

One of the most famous skiing regions in the world, the Alps sit at a lower altitude than the Rocky Mountains, which leaves the range more susceptible to climate change. Around 3% of Alpine glacial ice is lost per year and experts believe that the glaciers could disappear entirely by 2050.

 

Magdalen Islands, Quebec, Canada

disappearing-places-08Ron Erwin—Getty Images

With sandy beaches and sandstone cliffs, the Magdalen Islands are a lovely getaway spot in the Gulf of St. Lawrence. Yet the archipelago is regularly pelted by heavy winds and despite a wall of sea ice blunting the worst of the weather, the island’s coast currently erodes up to 40 inches a year. Even more troubling: that protective ice is rapidly melting. If experts are correct and the ice melts completely within the next 75 years, the island’s shores will be vulnerable to the area’s destructive storms.

 

Alaska

disappearing-places-09Paul Zizka—Getty Images

The Alaskan tundra is one of the most distinctive features of America’s northernmost state. Yet climate change has led to the thawing of the region’s permafrost, which not only damages infrastructure but also dramatically alters the current ecosystem.

 

Athabasca Glacier, Alberta, Canada

Athabasca Glacier, Columbia IcefieldTim Graham—Getty Images

The most-visited glacier in North America, Alberta’s Athabasca Glacier is a part of the Columbia Icefield spanning 2.3 square miles (6 sq km). Yet the glacier has been melting for the past 125 years, with its Southern edge retreating nearly a mile in that timeframe. Experts believe the glacier is now shrinking at its fastest rate yet and is currently losing anywhere between 6.6 to 9.8 feet a year.

 

Source: Time

Heartbleed Exposes a Problem With Open Source, But It’s Not What You Think

15 de abril de 2014

BY CHRISTINA WARREN

heartbleed-orange(Image: Mashable)

A week after the Heartbleed OpenSSL vulnerability wreaked havoc across the web, the conversation is shifting from reaction to reflection. The discussion is no longer about what to do now, but what can be done to prevent another Heartbleed from happening in the future. In other words, we’re entering the blame game chapter in this saga.

So who is to blame for Heartbleed?

If OpenSSL, the software package at the root of the vulnerability, were a piece of commercial software, we could blame the company behind the app. In fact, when Apple released an emergency patch for its own SSL/TLS bug back in February, the company was scrutinized by security experts, programmers and pundits a like.

But OpenSSL isn’t a commercial program. It’s an open-source project maintained by a small group of committers and volunteers.

Because OpenSSL is open source, there isn’t an immediate figure or organization to blame. Are we really going to blame unpaid software engineers who commit to a project that 66% of the Internet uses for free?

So if you can’t blame an entity — the first recourse for some — is the model of open-source software itself to blame?

Linus’s Law Didn’t Fail

Over the last 15 years, open-source software has developed a reputation for being secure and reliable. Open-source code can actually be more reliable than proprietary (or, closed-source) code because there are more users looking at it to find bugs and security holes.

In Eric S. Raymond’s seminal essay on open source, The Cathedral and the Bazaar, he defines Linus’s Law (named for the father of the Linux kernel, Linus Torvalds), which states that “given enough eyeballs, all bugs are shallow.” In other words. If enough users are looking at the code, bugs and problems will be found.

Raymond argues that this distinction is one of the reasons that open-source software is inherently safer than proprietary code. After all, it has more people looking at it, capable of finding and repairing bugs.

In the wake of Heartbleed and other open-source security failures, some have questioned whether Linus’s Law still holds true.

The argument is that if this was a commercially backed project with a well-funded development team of full-time professionals, rather than the volunteers and committers that currently make-up OpenSSL, the coding process and auditing process would have better.

But we can’t know that. Apple’s SSL/TLS bug (which was much smaller than the Heartbleed bug in both scope and in threat), existed for more than a year before Apple engineers found the bug and released patches. Yes, that library was also open source, but it was maintained by Apple employees, and Apple had to approve any outside contributions.

I summarized my thoughts on what Heartbleed means for open source on Twitter last week:

Captura de Tela (17)

Although I disagree with Raymond that open source is inherently more secure than other types of code, I agree with him that Heartbleed does not refute Linus’ Law. Yes, the Heartbleed bug went unidentified for more than two years, but it was caught — and caught by two different parties — because the code was open.

Heartbleed is not a failure of open source, at least not the way you may think. There is absolutely no reason to believe that Heartbleed happened because it was an open-source project powered by volunteers.

But if Heartbleed doesn’t refute Linus’s Law, that doesn’t mean that this situation still doesn’t put the spotlight on what really can hamper an open-source project: Lack of resources.

Open Source

One of the hallmarks of open-source software — in fact, a big part of its appeal — is that it is free to use and modify.

Open-source software isn’t always “free as in beer” (as Free Software Foundation leader and GNU founder Richard Stallman likes to say), but more often than not, companies don’t have to pay anything to access or implement open-source code into their projects.

In fact, it’s this “free” aspect that has led to the mass adoption of open-source in various industries. Although proprietary software (or software that is a mix of proprietary and open-source) still dominates many industries — open source has really found its place on the web.

Microsoft might be the world’s largest software maker, but most web servers don’t run Windows; they run Linux and a web server application such as Apache or Nginx. Why? Because Microsoft charges for its software. For a small business, running Linux might translate into relatively small savings. As a business grows, however, those savings can become quite substantial.

If Facebook or Google had to pay a license for every server or virtual server it operates — and another license for its web server — its business plan would be completely different.

This is even more true when open-source software — especially related to servers and security — has a track record that is as good or better than proprietary solutions.

Beyond that, the great thing about open source is that anyone can take a project or part of a project and build something else on top of it. And depending on the license, those changes often have to be shared with everyone else. That often leads to even better results.

But of course, nothing is really free. Maintaining and supporting software — open source or not — has a cost. Major (as in popular in size and in scope) open-source projects are generally funded in three ways:

  1. Donations from individuals, volunteers (by time or coding abilities) and non-profits.
  2. The project is funded and steered by a commercial entity or entities.
  3. Corporations who use and benefit from the project hire employees who are dedicated to working on the project full-time.

The Debian Linux distribution is funded by volunteers and by non-profit donations. It is one of the few completely community driven projects without a corporate sponsor.

Ubuntu, another Linux distribution (which is based on Debian), is sponsored by Canonical. Volunteers still make up a big part of the project, but Canonical ensures that full-time employees are paid.

Red Hat was one of the first companies to build a successful business off of open-source and free software. Although it makes the source code for its projects available to everyone, it sells software and service contracts for its flagship Red Hat Enterprise Linux and other products. Red Hat also sponsors community projects such as Fedora and CentOS.

Companies including Red Hat and IBM also donate employees to work full-time on important projects, including the Linux Kernel.

The WebKit project, which is the basis for the Safari browser (and until 2013, Google Chrome), is sponsored and maintained by Apple.

Over the last 15 years, most companies that benefit tremendously from open source — including but not limited to Amazon, Google, Facebook, IBM, Cisco and Twitter — also give back code, employee time and money to the projects that are most important to their business and product.

But not every project gets the type of attention or funding that it needs.

OpenSSL: Used By Many, Supported By Few

As the defacto SSL/TLS cryptographic stack on the web, it might be easy to think that OpenSSL has tons of support.

After all, as we’ve learned from Heartbleed — it’s not just web servers that use OpenSSL. Routers (big, expensive, high-end routers), firewalls, smartphones and other connected devices all use OpenSSL.

If the number of people that relied on a project — and its importance to the overall web — was proportionally related to the amount of support a project has, OpenSSL would be well-funded and have a heft of full-time paid employees and maintainers.

It’s not.

OpenSSL, a project that runs on 66% of all web servers, has just one full-time employee. One.

It gets worse. In the five years since the OpenSSL Software Foundation (OSF) was created — as a way to help sustain the OpenSSL project — this important project has never received more than $1 million in gross revenue a year.

Pure donations to the project are almost non-existent. Steve Marquess, the OpenSSL contributor who handles the business aspects of the OSF, addressed the current situation on his blog. According to Marquess, the foundation typically gets just $2,000 a year in donations.

Marquess writes (emphasis ours):

Even if those donations continue to arrive at the same rate indefinitely (they won’t), and even though every penny of those funds goes directly to OpenSSL team members, it is nowhere near enough to properly sustain the manpower levels needed to support such a complex and critical software product. While OpenSSL does “belong to the people” it is neither realistic nor appropriate to expect that a few hundred,* or even a few thousand, individuals provide all the financial support. The ones who should be contributing real resources are the commercial companies and governments who use OpenSSL extensively and take it for granted.*

The rest of the money — that under $1 million figure — doesn’t come from volunteered employees or corporate stewardship or even support contracts. It comes from work-for-hire contracts.

That is, companies pay members of the OpenSSL team (there are six core committers — only one of which is able to make OpenSSL his full-time job) $250 an hour to work on a project related to OpenSSL for that company.

Even at $250 an hour, the fact that very few OpenSSL team members exist (which is partially due to the high skill requirements and lack of guaranteed income) means that existing contract work is often unstaffed, and thus, unpaid.

So what’s the solution? Well, Marquess would rather have OpenSSL funded via support contracts. In the footnotes, he writes:

Here’s a plug for one of the most effective ways your corporation can not only support OpenSSL but also receive something of tangible value in return: a software support contract. We have a formal contract with the fine print that lawyers love, and your accounts payable people won’t be all flummoxed at the bizarre notion of giving money away as they’re used to paying for expensive commercial support contracts for proprietary software. Someday you may even encounter an issue with your mission critical use of OpenSSL that could benefit from direct and prompt attention from the people who wrote that code.

He also makes mention of the fact that lots of big companies are already taking advantage of OpenSSL in their commercial products and not contributing back.

I’m looking at you, Fortune 1000 companies. The ones who include OpenSSL in your firewall/appliance/cloud/financial/security products that you sell for profit, and/or who use it to secure your internal infrastructure and communications. The ones who don’t have to fund an in-house team of programmers to wrangle crypto code, and who then nag us for free consulting services when you can’t figure out how to use it. The ones who have never lifted a finger to contribute to the open source community that gave you this gift. You know who you are.

So What’s the Solution?

On Hacker News, some commenters criticized the OSF’s approach of doing contract work as a way to fund the project. I think this is a fair assessment.

A project of the nature of OpenSSL really should be funded by support contracts or by corporate sponsors agreeing to pay the salary of cryptography experts to work on OpenSSL full-time.

With no disrespect intended towards any member of the OpenSSL team or the OSF, part of the problem also appears to be that the project lacks strong leadership — at least in the way that could put a plan in motion to ensure that resources required to keep the project running successfully (and not the part-time gig for a few individuals and the full-time job for one person) are in place.

The OSF itself could also do a better job being transparent about who its sponsors are (and the nature of the projects it works on), as well as doing larger calls for funding and support contracts.

Having said that, because this is not a commercial endeavor, its unfair to hold the project to the same standard as we would a commercial entity. Maybe if companies can’t donate employees to work on the code, they can donate people to help with some of the public-facing and fundraising aspects of the foundation.

I do hope that the largest companies that benefit from OpenSSL — especially those who use the software in their commercial hardware products and security consoles — will see Heartbleed as a wake-up call. Not to abandon OpenSSL and move to a paid solution — but to do a better job giving back to the project and community.

More support could also mean more improvements to the code itself — and to the whole process. Yes, it’s possible that even with a team of well-paid engineers, code auditors and support staff, Heartbleed could still have happened. I would imagine finding this bug would be like trying to find a typo in Ulysses.

The difference is that a better-staffed project would mean that making changes and improvements to the code-auditing and code-review processes would be more feasible. That makes for a better end product, which means that everyone using OpenSSL would have the advantages of a safer, more stable and feature-rich product.

Heartbleed didn’t happen because OpenSSL is open source, it happened because the project wasn’t given the support it needed. Let’s hope that changes. And soon. This project is too important to too many.

 

Source: Mashable

O mestre da literatura policial está de volta a Hollywood

11 de abril de 2014

The-Drop-movie-imageImagem: Divulgação

Foi divulgado na última semana o trailer de The Drop, dirigido pelo pouco conhecido Michaël R. Roskam. No filme, Tom Hardy (A Origem, Batman: O Cavaleiro das Trevas Ressurge) é o dono de um bar em Boston que faz vistas grossas para a vocação de seu estabelecimento: é o local preferido dos criminosos para transações ilegais de dinheiro. Quando um assalto dá errado, ele se vê entre a investigação policial e as ameaças de criminosos prejudicados.

Além de ser o último trabalho de James Gandolfini (Os Sopranos, O Homem da Máfia), o filme é marcado pela estreia do escritor americano Dennis Lehane como roteirista em Hollywood. Antes, o autor fez alguns trabalhos de roteiro e produção nas séries The Wire e Boardwalk Empire.

Lehane é considerado um dos maiores mestres do romance policial na atualidade. No Brasil, ele é editado pela Companhia das Letras, que publicou toda sua obra. O livro mais recente é Os Filhos da Noite, lançado no começo de 2014, que conta a história da ascensão de um filho de policial no crime organizado em Boston durante a Lei Seca. Seus outros personagens recorrentes são a dupla de detetives particulares Patrick Kenzie e Angela Gennaro, que protagonizaram cinco obras (a última, Estrada Escura, publicada no Brasi em 2012).

No cinema, as histórias de Dennis Lehane costumam render boas adaptações: Medo da Verdade (Gone Baby Gone), o primeiro e melhor filme de Ben Affleck como diretor (cuja adaptação melhorou a história, aparando as sobras); o premiado Sobre Meninos e Lobos (Mystic River), dirigido por Clint Eastwood; e Ilha do Medo (Shutter Island) de Martin Scorsese. Os Filhos da Noite já teve os direitos comprados e deve cair nas mãos de Ben Affleck.

O próximo filme, The Drop, é a adaptação de um conto de Lehane. O longa metragem está previsto para estrear nos Estados Unidos no dia 19 de setembro. No Brasil ainda não há informações sobre a distribuição. Enquanto isso, dá tempo de conhecer mais a obra do escritor, que costuma contar histórias sobre homens moldados pelo ambiente onde cresceram e atordoados pelas conseqüências de fazer o que tem que ser feito.

 

Fonte: Trincheira

Escritor projeta colapso do capitalismo e afirma: o que está por vir será melhor

9 de abril de 2014

12357_2_LJeremy Rifkin (Imagem: Wikimedia Commons)

SÃO PAULO – As máquinas irão mudar o conceito do que é ser humano. De acordo com o teórico social Jeremy Rifkin, elas irão minar o nosso senso sobre propriedade privada, tirar os nossos trabalhos e nos tornar agentes livres de uma nova ordem global de “economia cooperativa”. Em uma boa medida, essas mudanças irão destruir capitalismo antes da metade do século XXI.

Rifkin acaba de publicar seu novo livro “The Zero Marginal Cost Society”, ou A Sociedade do Custo Marginal Zero, em tradução livre. “Se você está pensando que a sociedade do custo marginal zero pertence ao gênero futurista, que recorre a previsão de eventos extremos para atrair atenção, então você até poderia estar certo. O valor desse livro, contudo, não reside na precisão de suas previsões específicas, mas sim na extrapolação de tendências atuais que Rifkin alcança”, destaca a resenha do Financial Times sobre o livro.

Rifkin vislumbrou um novo futuro, em que o grande destaque fica para a lógica colaborativa da internet, que tomará conta do sistema quase como um todo. O autor ressalta que as máquinas, que sustentam o argumento central do livro, serão autorreplicantes, sendo capazes de produzir suas próprias peças de reposição e serão alimentadas por uma fonte de energia alternativa como o Sol.

Elas serão conectadas pela “internet das coisas”, uma rede de auto-organização que lhes permite operar como parte de uma nova infraestrutura inteligente generalizada, com as máquinas não requerendo nenhum trabalho humano para funcionar. Como resultado, o custo marginal de produção cai perto de zero e, então, tudo se torna livre. Em sua busca por lucro, as empresas terão irrevogavelmente que minar suas próprias margens.

Desta forma, o capitalismo vai ser destruído. Mas não se desespere, aponta Rifkin: em seu lugar, surgirá uma civilização baseada em um novo e mais gratificante cooperativismo. Este movimento ocorre primeiro em indústrias como de entretenimento e internet, mas também fica claro em outros campos.

Rifkin destaca que os lucros corporativos começam a diminuir, os direitos de propriedade estão cada vez mais fracos e uma economia baseada em escassez é substituída por uma economia de abundância. Cursos online e impressoras 3D já são sinais do futuro que está por vir. Além disso, o uso de energias renováveis, que responderão por 80% do sistema de geração até 2040 e de forma totalmente descentralizada, também será um fator preponderante para este novo sistema.

E esses grandes avanços de produtividade devem afetar metade da economia mundial até 2025, como aponta Rifkin.

Assim, as três previsões do autor são o avanço da economia colaborativa, que vai derrubar as maiores empresas mundiais, encolhendo suas margens de lucro, a rede descentralizada de energia e eliminação do trabalho, com as máquinas assumindo o comando. Por outro lado, a economia da abundância fará com que a vida das pessoas seja gratificante, aponta. “Livres da necessidade de ‘ganhar a vida’, as pessoas vão ter mais tempo para o que realmente importa”.

Contestações
Pode-se fazer algumas contestações sobre a tese do autor. A primeira, é de que o capitalismo é facilmente mutável: quando os lucros estavam evaporando, os monopólios ganharam forças, além de outra forma de aumentar o valor dos negócios.

Em segundo lugar, está os pressupostos que ele usa sobre como a natureza humana vai mudar para acomodar à nova realidade. “Afinal, se tudo é de graça, não se levaria a um materialismo ainda maior que destrói o planeta?”.

Porém, para Rifkin, haverá uma maior harmonia entre as pessoas e o planeta. Com os padrões de vida subindo, as taxas de natalidade em partes mais pobres do mundo tendem a cair, até chegar a um nível sustentável. Futuros alternativos parecer igualmente plausíveis: os milhões que saem de extrema pobreza nos países em desenvolvimento poderiam encontrar-se em um mundo de oportunidades limitadas.

As previsões de Rifkin são polêmicas e trazem à tona diversas discussões sobre tecnologia. Como lidar com as consequências, é algo que só o futuro pode apontar.

 

Fonte: InfoMoney

Lya Luft costura reflexões e recordações em seu novo livro, “O Tempo É um Rio que Corre”

7 de abril de 2014

16360268Foto: Diego Vara / Agencia RBS

Para Lya Luft, mergulhar nas águas do tempo é tomar ciência do valor da vida. É essa a linha central que atravessa seu novo livro, O Tempo É um Rio que Corre, que ela autografa nesta terça em Porto Alegre.

O volume retoma as incursões da autora no terreno do ensaio de não ficção, ramo de sua obra bastante bem-sucedido comercialmente. O sucesso de Perdas e Ganhos, de 2003, tornou Lya uma autora popular de abrangência nacional – embora seus livros fossem bem recebidos pela crítica antes disso, com o ensaio ela ampliou seu público. Em O Tempo É um Rio que Corre, Lya retoma a forma solta que já havia utilizado em Múltipla Escolha (2010) e alinha recordações e reflexões para discutir a passagem do tempo, intercalando cada capítulo com poemas de sua própria autoria.

– Meus livros vão se formando muito lentamente, como janelinhas que abrem e se fecham, é um processo interno semiconsciente. Neste livro, o que acabei fazendo foi algo muito pessoal. O que há ali são histórias e considerações minhas, frutos da minha vivência, em um estilo que procurei tornar leve e, às vezes, engraçado, mas emocionado e racional. É uma conversa direta com o leitor – avalia.

O livro se divide em três grandes seções, todas afinadas com a metáfora aquática do título: Águas Mansas, Maré Alta e A Embocadura do Rio, cada uma concernente à passagem do tempo em uma etapa da vida. Em Águas Mansas, Lya escava memórias da infância passada em Santa Cruz – que já havia sido abordada em outro livro pela autora, Mar de Dentro (2000). Em Maré Alta, discute a juventude, tanto a sua quanto a de seus filhos, fazendo um paralelo entre gerações e aproveitando para pensar as mudanças ocorridas no papel social do jovem.

– Vivemos hoje em uma cultura que casa a futilidade com o endeusamento da juventude. Sempre me admiro dos lapsos de linguagem de quem, com mais idade, diz “no meu tempo”, e este tempo é sempre a juventude. Como se, depois de mais velho, você ficasse tão despossuído que nem o tempo tem mais. Quando, na verdade, como digo no livro, ser jovem também não é fácil. Isso é o que mais me deixa perplexa, o terror da velhice e o endeusamento da juventude – diz a autora.

O terço final, A Embocadura do Rio, encara a morte não apenas como tema literário – algo que Lya já fez em seus romances de opressiva carga psicológica –, mas como o horizonte da vida. Aqui também a autora se vale de perdas pessoais e de sua própria concepção da finitude.

– Há algum tempo, fui a uma universidade falar com um rapaz que estava trabalhando com um livro meu, e ele, ao falar do livro, me providenciou uma revelação de mim mesma. Ele disse: “A senhora não segue um fio, segue por elipses”. E é assim mesmo, eu nunca raciocino muito sobre o meu trabalho. Quero tentar incluir ali as sensações e as coisas que vou capturando ao olhar o mundo – comenta.

 


2014-O-tempo-e-um-rio-que-correO TEMPO É UM RIO QUE CORRE
LYA LUFT

Ensaio. Editora Record, 144 páginas, R$ 28

Sessão de autógrafos nesta terça, às 19h.
Livraria Cultura do Bourbon Country (Túlio de Rose, 80), em Porto Alegre
Fone (51) 3028-4033


 

Fonte: Zero Hora